母乳餵養的益處

母乳餵養的重要性是世界公認的。世界衛生組織建議媽媽在寶寶出生頭六個月純母乳餵養寶寶,之後在添加輔食的基礎上至少堅持兩年。但是,除了其營養價值之外,母乳餵養還有以下幾項好處: 保護寶寶降低感染風險,改善媽媽和寶寶的生理系統功能,有助於增進母嬰情感。

對媽媽的好處
產後早期媽媽和寶寶之間的身體接觸有利於延長泌乳期,適應媽媽的胃腸道變化,增加哺乳期間的能量需求。母乳餵養讓媽媽更關注寶寶的需求,可加速產後產後子宮復舊,減少出血的風險。有利於媽媽恢復孕前體重,降低患卵巢癌、乳腺癌、心血管疾病和 2 型糖尿病的風險。
 
母乳餵養具有長期抗應激作用; 每次給寶寶親餵母乳,媽媽的血壓和皮質醇水平都會下降,與媽媽用奶瓶餵寶寶相比,親餵時媽媽的身體應激反應皮質醇的升高幅度較小。與不進行母乳餵養或不生育的同齡婦女相比,親餵母乳的媽媽可能會更鎮定、更好相處。其實,母乳餵養有利於媽媽和寶寶的互動,讓媽媽在寶寶出生後立即與寶寶親膚接觸,與寶寶相處得更久,親餵時間更長。

對寶寶的益處

母乳既為寶寶的成長和發育提供最佳營養成分(脂肪、乳糖、蛋白質和宏量營養素),又能完全保護(生化和細胞成分)寶寶不受感染。與配方奶餵養的寶寶相比,足月寶寶喝母乳可顯著改善其營養狀況,促進胃腸道成熟和神經發育,不易受感染,不易患有慢性病。母乳餵養早產寶寶還有其它益處,包括減少患新生兒壞死性小腸結腸炎(NEC)、 腸內餵養不耐症、慢性肺病、早產兒視網膜病變、神經發育遲緩和 再入院治療的風險。
 
就寶寶發育而言,母乳餵養寶寶有許多好處,包括促進神經發育、提高行為等級、減少患肥胖症和成年 2 型糖尿病的風險。此外,母乳餵養還可促進寶寶口腔和麵部的正常生長,包括促進牙列、口周和咬肌活動和上顎生長。降低中耳炎的風險。
 
母乳餵養還有利於增進母嬰感情。吸吮等親膚接觸和触覺刺激乳頭會導致縮宮素(射乳反射的關鍵激素)的釋放,可培養母嬰感情。縮宮素的釋放增加了流入媽媽乳房和乳頭區的血流量,使皮膚溫度升高,給寶寶營造溫暖和滋養的環境

研究摘要

 

Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries (英语)

We reviewed the evidence on the effects of breastfeeding on short- and long-term infant and maternal health outcomes in developed countries. ...

Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, Trikalinos T, Lau J (2007)

Evid Rep Technol Assess (153):1-186

 

An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products (英语)

To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk-based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk-based products in extremely ...

Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, Patel AL, Trawöger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Chan GM, Blanco CL, Abrams S, Cotten CM, Laroia N, Ehrenkranz RA, Dudell G, Cristofalo EA, Meier P, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ, Lucas A (2010) J

Pediatr. (156):562-7

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