母乳餵養計劃

大多數婦女在懷孕前或妊娠初期就決定進行母乳餵養。因此,儘早向相關醫護專業人士諮詢有助於媽媽實現自己的母乳餵養目標。產科和兒科醫護專業人士的建議和方法有助於獲得理想的母乳餵養效果。應鼓勵媽媽和醫護專業人士討論自己的母乳餵養目標,一起制定母乳餵養計劃和分娩計劃。

病歷和乳房檢查
與產科醫生或相關醫療保健機構進行產前就診時,孕婦應告知與今後母乳喂養相關的個人病歷。應詳盡說明之前的所有疾病、用藥、食療和其它相關事宜。應討論可能會影響母乳喂養的所有疾病、用藥或之前的乳房手術。此外,還應討論之前的母乳喂養史和母乳喂養的潛在障礙。產前就診時應檢查乳房和乳頭以及雙乳的對稱性以確保媽媽了解可能會出現哪些母乳喂養方面的問題。

母乳餵養輔導

根據個人病歷和乳房檢查結果,向孕婦說明乳房情況及可能會影響母乳餵養的所有解剖學問題、飲食或藥物方面的相關問題。此外,還可以通過討論消除媽媽對母乳餵養的疑慮,鼓勵媽媽分娩後採用循證母乳餵養策略,包括鼓勵儘早、頻繁母乳餵養,避免在醫院可能會出現的問題。
 
還可以討論媽媽出院回家後採用的母乳餵養方法、實用的母乳餵養和母乳儲存建議、重返工作、如何挑選吸乳器。對孕婦親屬進行輔導也很重要。多項研究均表明,如果孕婦的親屬和醫護人員支持母乳餵養,孕婦進行母乳餵養的可能性就更大,更容易實現自己的母乳餵養目標。

研究摘要

 

Breast cancer risk analysis: A genetic epidemiology service for families (英语)

Breast Cancer Risk Analysis, a service for women with breast cancer and their families, makes use of information drawn from fields such as genetics, epidemiology, ...

Kelly PT (1992)

J Genet Couns. 1(2):155-67
The association between maternal perception of obstetric and pediatric care providers' attitudes and exclusive breastfeeding outcomes (英语)

Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for 6 months. Successful breastfeeding requires support from family members, peers, and health care professionals. ...

Ramakrishnan R, Oberg CN, Kirby RS (2013)

J Hum Lact. 30(1):80-7
 

參考文獻

American Academy of Pediatrics and The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Breastfeeding handbook for physicians 2006).

Lawrence, R.A. & Lawrence, R.M. Breastfeeding: a guide for the medical profession (Elsevier Mosby, Maryland Heights, MO, 2011).

Odom, E. C., Li, R., Scanlon, K. S., Perrine, C. G. & Grummer-Strawn, L. (2014). Association of Family and Health Care Provider Opinion on Infant Feeding with Mother’s Breastfeeding Decision. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(8), 1203–1207.

Ramakrishnan, R., Oberg, C. N. & Kirby, R. S. (2014). The association between maternal perception of obstetric and pediatric care providers’ attitudes and exclusive breastfeeding outcomes. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(1), 80-87.

Perrine, C. G., Scanlon, K. S., Li, R., Odom, E. & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2012). Baby-friendly hospital practices and meeting exclusive breastfeeding intention. Pediatrics, 130(1), 54-60.