吸出母乳

新鮮母乳中含有活性母體細胞,營養物質、生長因子以及許多其他有益成分的含量也是最高的。隨著溫度變化以及暴露時間的增加,這些成分將顯著減少,同時細菌污染和病原體滋生的風險均會增加。新鮮母乳並不是無菌的,準確的說是含有多種生物體,其中包括非致病菌、致病菌、病毒、分枝桿菌和真菌。儘管母乳中含有大量細菌,但一般而言,通過enteromammary 通道轉移到乳房的大多數已識別生物體為來自媽媽乳頭或乳房的非致病的正常皮膚菌群,或是保護新生兒腸胃系統的生物體。

吸乳前

在吸乳之前,建議吸乳媽媽用肥皂和水徹底清洗手部。減少吸乳時的細菌含量有助於減少儲存期間的細菌滋生問題。除手部清潔之後,未發現除日常衛生習慣之外的額外清潔乳房有任何益處。使用皮膚清潔劑清洗乳房與只用水清洗的殺菌效果類似,因此建議僅保持常規乳房衛生習慣即可。

吸乳

可用手或吸乳器進行吸乳。吸乳器的選擇要視預期吸乳頻率、時間限制、成本以及是否可供電而定。
 
當寶寶無法母乳餵養或無法有效吸出乳房母乳時,媽媽就需要幫助開始、建立和保持充足母乳供應。有效管理產後頭兩週對於媽媽長期泌乳至關重要。以下乾預措施對於媽媽在產後幾週內分泌充足母乳至關重要:
 
  • 分娩後與寶寶進行皮膚接觸: 研究證實,這可以延長母乳餵養時間,因此應盡量做到

 

  • 指導媽媽如何用手部進行乳房按摩

 

  • 雙側吸乳(同步吸乳): 這有助於提高泌乳量

 

  • 分娩後儘早排乳: 相較於分娩後六小時內吸乳,分娩後一小時內吸乳有助於提高泌乳量,並且在未來幾週內泌乳量將明顯增加,這非常重要。

 

  • 分娩之後使用啟動技術 (Symphony PLUS),在產後 6-13 天內的激活泌乳(下奶)時期使用雙韻律 (2-Phase) 吸乳模式,有助於提高泌乳量

 

  • 頻繁吸乳也是一項重要因素。使用吸乳器每天吸乳超過六次的媽媽,與吸乳次數少於六次的媽媽相比,泌乳量更高。建議使用吸乳器的媽媽每天吸乳八次左右

 

  • 哺餵間隔吸乳: 對於偶爾吸乳哺餵寶寶且泌乳充足的媽媽,可在兩次母乳哺餵間隔進行吸乳

 

 

  • 穿戴舒適合身的吸乳護罩,不得擠壓乳房,否則將損傷乳頭; 如果管道過緊,則有多種吸乳護罩尺寸可選

 

  • 輕輕將吸乳護罩貼近乳房: 這有助於防止乳導管受阻,並有效支撐乳房排乳

吸乳後

吸乳之後,根據使用說明進行清潔。

研究摘要

 

Breast pump suction patterns that mimic the human infant during breastfeeding: greater milk output in less time spent pumping for breast pump-dependent mothers with premature infants (英语)

The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness, efficiency, comfort and convenience of newly designed breast pump suction patterns (BPSPs) that mimic sucking ...

Meier PP, Engstrom JL, Janes JE, Jegier BJ, Loera F (2012)

J Perinatol. 32(2):103-10
Simultaneous breast expression in breastfeeding women is more efficacious than sequential breast expression(英语)

Simultaneous (SIM) breast expression saves mothers time compared with sequential (SEQ) expression, but it remains unclear whether the two methods differ in milk output efficiency ...

Prime DK, Garbin CP, Hartmann PE, Kent JC (2012)

Breastfeed Med. 7(6):442-7
 

參考文獻

Eglash, A. ABM clinical protocol #8: Human milk storage information for home use for full-term infants (original protocol March 2004; revision #1 March 2010). Breastfeed Med 5, 127-130 (2010).

Eteng, M.U., Ebong, P.E., Eyong, E.U. et al. Storage beyond three hours at ambient temperature alters the biochemical and nutritional qualities of breastmilk. Afr J Reprod Health 2001;5:130–134.

Hill, P.D., Aldag, J.C., Chatterton, R.T. Initiation and frequency of pumping and milk production in mothers of non-nursing preterm infants. J Hum Lact. 2001;17(1):9-13

Hill, P.D., Aldag, J.C., Chatterton, R.T., Zinaman, M. Comparison of Milk Output Between Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants: The First 6 Weeks After Birth. J Hum Lact. 2005 February 1, 2005;21(1):22-30.

Human Milk Banking Association of North America 2011 Best practice for expressing, storing and handling human milk in hospitals, homes, and child care settings (HMBANA, Fort Worth,( 2011).

Kent, J.C. et al. Importance of vacuum for breastmilk expression. Breastfeed Med 3, 11-19 (2008)(英语)。

 

 

Meier, P.P., Engstrom, J.L., Janes, J.E., Jegier, B.J. & Loera, F. Breast pump suction patterns that mimic the human infant during breastfeeding: Greater milk output in less time spent pumping for breast pump-dependent mothers with premature infants. J Perinatol 32, 103-110 (2012)(英语)。

Morton, J., Hall, J.Y., Wong, R.J., Benitz, W.E. & Rhine, W.D. Combining hand techniques with electric pumping increases milk production in mothers of preterm infants. J Perinatol 29, 757-764 (2009).

Parker, L.A., Sullivan, S., Krueger, C. & Mueller, M. Association of timing of initiation of breastmilk expression on milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II among mothers of very low-birth-weight infants. Breastfeed Med (2015).

Prime, D.K., Garbin, C.P., Hartmann, P.E. & Kent, J.C. Simultaneous breast expression n breastfeeding women is more efficacious than sequential breast expression. Breastfeed Med 7, 442-447 (2012)(英语)。

Torowicz, D.L., Seelhorst, A., Froh, E.B., Spatz, D.L. Human milk and breastfeeding outcomes in infants with congenital heart disease. Breastfeed Med 10, 31-37(2015).